Brest Cancer Treatment.

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.[8] Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly inverted nipple, or a red or scaly patch of skin.[1] In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodesshortness of breath, or yellow skin.[9]

Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcoholhormone replacement therapy during menopauseionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, prior history of breast cancer, and family history.[1][2] About 5–10% of cases are due to genes inherited from a person’s parents,[1] including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others.[1] Breast cancer most commonly develops in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.[1] Cancers developing from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those developing from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.[1] In addition, there are more than 18 other sub-types of breast cancer.[2] Some cancers, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions.[2] The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking a biopsy of the concerning lump.[1] Once the diagnosis is made, further tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast and which treatments are most likely to be effective.[1]

 

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Breast cancer

Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling.

The first noticeable symptom of breast cancer is typically a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue. More than 80% of breast cancer cases are discovered when the woman feels a lump.[18] The earliest breast cancers are detected by a mammogram.[19] Lumps found in lymph nodes located in the armpits[18] can also indicate breast cancer.

Indications of breast cancer other than a lump may include thickening different from the other breast tissue, one breast becoming larger or lower, a nipple changing position or shape or becoming inverted, skin puckering or dimpling, a rash on or around a nipple, discharge from nipple/s, constant pain in part of the breast or armpit, and swelling beneath the armpit or around the collarbone.[20] Pain (“mastodynia“) is an unreliable tool in determining the presence or absence of breast cancer, but may be indicative of other breast health issues.[18][19][21]

Inflammatory breast cancer is a particular type of breast cancer which can pose a substantial diagnostic challenge. Symptoms may resemble a breast inflammation and may include itching, pain, swelling, nipple inversion, warmth and redness throughout the breast, as well as an orange-peel texture to the skin referred to as peau d’orange.[18] As inflammatory breast cancer does not present as a lump there can sometimes be a delay in diagnosis.

Another reported symptom complex of breast cancer is Paget’s disease of the breast. This syndrome presents as skin changes resembling eczema, such as redness, discoloration, or mild flaking of the nipple skin. As Paget’s disease of the breast advances, symptoms may include tingling, itching, increased sensitivity, burning, and pain. There may also be discharge from the nipple. Approximately half of women diagnosed with Paget’s disease of the breast also have a lump in the breast.[22]

In rare cases, what initially appears as a fibroadenoma (hard, movable non-cancerous lump) could in fact be a phyllodes tumor. Phyllodes tumors are formed within the stroma (connective tissue) of the breast and contain glandular as well as stromal tissue. Phyllodes tumors are not staged in the usual sense; they are classified on the basis of their appearance under the microscope as benign, borderline, or malignant.[23]

Occasionally, breast cancer presents as metastatic disease—that is, cancer that has spread beyond the original organ. The symptoms caused by metastatic breast cancer will depend on the location of metastasis. Common sites of metastasis include bone, liver, lung and brain.[24] Unexplained weight loss can occasionally signal breast cancer, as can symptoms of fevers or chills. Bone or joint pains can sometimes be manifestations of metastatic breast cancer, as can jaundice or neurological symptoms. These symptoms are called non-specific, meaning they could be manifestations of many other illnesses.[25]

Most symptoms of breast disorders, including most lumps, do not turn out to represent underlying breast cancer. Fewer than 20% of lumps, for example, are cancerous,[26] and benign breast diseases such as mastitis and fibroadenoma of the breast are more common causes of breast disorder symptoms.[27]

Risk factors[edit]

Risk factors can be divided into two categories:

  • modifiable risk factors (things that people can change themselves, such as consumption of alcoholic beverages), and
  • fixed risk factors (things that cannot be changed, such as age and biological sex).[28]

The primary risk factors for breast cancer are being female and older age.[29] Other potential risk factors include genetics,[30] lack of childbearing or lack of breastfeeding,[31] higher levels of certain hormones,[32][33] certain dietary patterns, and obesity. One study indicates that exposure to light pollution is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer.[34]

Diagnosis[edit]

Early signs of possible breast cancer

Most types of breast cancer are easy to diagnose by microscopic analysis of a sample—or biopsy—of the affected area of the breast. Also, there are types of breast cancer that require specialized lab exams.

The two most commonly used screening methods, physical examination of the breasts by a healthcare provider and mammography, can offer an approximate likelihood that a lump is cancer, and may also detect some other lesions, such as a simple cyst.[81] When these examinations are inconclusive, a healthcare provider can remove a sample of the fluid in the lump for microscopic analysis (a procedure known as fine needle aspiration, or fine needle aspiration and cytology—FNAC) to help establish the diagnosis. The needle aspiration may be performed in a healthcare provider’s office or clinic using local anaesthetic if required.[clarification needed] A finding of clear fluid makes the lump highly unlikely to be cancerous, but bloody fluid may be sent off for inspection under a microscope for cancerous cells. Together, physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and FNAC can be used to diagnose breast cancer with a good degree of accuracy.

Other options for biopsy include a core biopsy or vacuum-assisted breast biopsy,[82] which are procedures in which a section of the breast lump is removed; or an excisional biopsy, in which the entire lump is removed. Very often the results of physical examination by a healthcare provider, mammography, and additional tests that may be performed in special circumstances (such as imaging by ultrasound or MRI) are sufficient to warrant excisional biopsy as the definitive diagnostic and primary treatment method.

Classification[edit]

Breast cancers are classified by several grading systems. Each of these influences the prognosis and can affect treatment response. Description of a breast cancer optimally includes all of these factors.

  • Histopathology. Breast cancer is usually classified primarily by its histological appearance. Most breast cancers are derived from the epithelium lining the ducts or lobules, and these cancers are classified as ductal or lobular carcinoma. Carcinoma in situ is growth of low-grade cancerous or precancerous cells within a particular tissue compartment such as the mammary duct without invasion of the surrounding tissue. In contrast, invasive carcinoma does not confine itself to the initial tissue compartment.[83]
  • GradeGrading compares the appearance of the breast cancer cells to the appearance of normal breast tissue. Normal cells in an organ like the breast become differentiated, meaning that they take on specific shapes and forms that reflect their function as part of that organ. Cancerous cells lose that differentiation. In cancer, the cells that would normally line up in an orderly way to make up the milk ducts become disorganized. Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low grade), moderately differentiated (intermediate grade), and poorly differentiated (high grade) as the cells progressively lose the features seen in normal breast cells. Poorly differentiated cancers (the ones whose tissue is least like normal breast tissue) have a worse prognosis.
  • StageBreast cancer staging using the TNM system is based on the size of the tumor (T), whether or not the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes (N) in the armpits, and whether the tumor has metastasized (M) (i.e. spread to a more distant part of the body). Larger size, nodal spread, and metastasis have a larger stage number and a worse prognosis.
    The main stages are:

Where available, imaging studies may be employed as part of the staging process in select cases to look for signs of metastatic cancer. However, in cases of breast cancer with low risk for metastasis, the risks associated with PET scansCT scans, or bone scans outweigh the possible benefits, as these procedures expose the person to a substantial amount of potentially dangerous ionizing radiation.[84][85]
  • Receptor status. Breast cancer cells have receptors on their surface and in their cytoplasm and nucleus. Chemical messengers such as hormones bind to receptors, and this causes changes in the cell. Breast cancer cells may or may not have three important receptors: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2.
    ER+ cancer cells (that is, cancer cells that have estrogen receptors) depend on estrogen for their growth, so they can be treated with drugs to block estrogen effects (e.g. tamoxifen), and generally have a better prognosis. Untreated, HER2+ breast cancers are generally more aggressive than HER2- breast cancers,[86][87] but HER2+ cancer cells respond to drugs such as the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (in combination with conventional chemotherapy), and this has improved the prognosis significantly.[88] Cells that do not have any of these three receptor types (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or HER2) are called triple-negative, although they frequently do express receptors for other hormones, such as androgen receptor and prolactin receptor.
  • DNA assaysDNA testing of various types including DNA microarrays have compared normal cells to breast cancer cells. The specific changes in a particular breast cancer can be used to classify the cancer in several ways, and may assist in choosing the most effective treatment for that DNA type.

Prevention[edit]

Lifestyle[edit]

Women can reduce their risk of breast cancer by maintaining a healthy weight, reducing alcohol use, increasing physical activity, and breast-feeding.[89] These modifications might prevent 38% of breast cancers in the US, 42% in the UK, 28% in Brazil and 20% in China.[89] The benefits with moderate exercise such as brisk walking are seen at all age groups including postmenopausal women.[89][90] High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer by about 14%.[91] Strategies that encourage regular physical activity and reduce obesity could also have other benefits, such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.[28]

High intake of citrus fruit has been associated with a 10% reduction in the risk of breast cancer.[92]

Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids appear to reduce the risk.[93] High consumption of soy-based foods may reduce risk.[94]

Pre-emptive surgery[edit]

Removal of both breasts before any cancer has been diagnosed or any suspicious lump or other lesion has appeared (a procedure known as prophylactic bilateral mastectomy) may be considered in people with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, which are associated with a substantially heightened risk for an eventual diagnosis of breast cancer.[95][96] Evidence is not strong enough to support this procedure in anyone but those at the highest risk.[97][needs update] BRCA testing is recommended in those with a high family risk after genetic counseling. It is not recommended routinely.[98] This is because there are many forms of changes in BRCA genes, ranging from harmless polymorphisms to obviously dangerous frameshift mutations. The effect of most of the identifiable changes in the genes is uncertain. Testing in an average-risk person is particularly likely to return one of these indeterminate, useless results. It is unclear if removing the second breast in those who have breast cancer in one is beneficial.[97]

Medications[edit]

The selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen) reduce the risk of breast cancer but increase the risk of thromboembolism and endometrial cancer.[99] There is no overall change in the risk of death.[99][100] They are thus not recommended for the prevention of breast cancer in women at average risk but may be offered for those at high risk.[101]The benefit of breast cancer reduction continues for at least five years after stopping a course of treatment with these medications.[102]

Last Updated on: October 29th, 2018 at 1:34 am, by admin